WORLD WAR II
was the most destructive war in human history. Started in 1939 when France and Britain declared war to Germany, but became an European conflict in 1941 when Japanese attack pearl harbour = global war.
At first German conquest of europe met no opposition, but it had the support of Mussolini ecc..= conquest Scandinavia, Belgium :Balkans, Greece... only in 1940 German suffered his first defeat.
Britain was lead by Churchill and resist to German advance.
After Japanese attack on pearl harbour Europan countries fighting against germany.
1943 Italy invasion of allied.
The war in Europe ended in may but three months later the american dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
=enormour number of casualties.
in Hitler's plans there was also the extermination of the Jews in Europe (Final Solution).
Jews were deported to concentration camps. A lot of them died. At the end Nazi war criminals were tried.
CULTURAL TRANSFORMATION IN THE EARLY 20th CENTURY
explosion of technological innovation:
-automobile and electricity -revolutions in transport → reshaping the urban landscape
-cinema and radio were diffused in all the world
-film and radio became tools of propaganda (4 example about Mussolini)
MODERNISM IN EUROPE
=period of innovations in all things
is a complex movements started in 1910 which involved all forms of arts like literature, cinema, music...
modernism encompasses the representation of the modern world and the man's place in it.
Common desire to experiment with form of style
direct attempt to represent the workings of the mind an the unconscious.
Work typically fragmentary and relative favouring subject perception.
Rejected the idea that there was only a truth.
This period include artistic innovation, exchange. Its epicenter was in Paris and was transversal 'cause it involved writers, painters, filmmakers...
visual arts= Picasso Braque explore multiple planes and volumetric relationship
Futurist= Balla and Boccioni, Marinetti and Duchamp, Kandisky
The roots of Modernist poetry: some poets began to take inspiration from French symbolist like Verlaine and Mallarmé
-The war poets:
the horrors of the first war gave rise to a group of poets calle “war poets” like Owen and Sassoon and Brooke. This people at first believed that the war was a just cause but this was only an illusion.
JUDE THE OBSCURE -Tomas Hardy
Jud is the protagonist, is a man who go to university and then he marriage Arabella and they have a children; after when she goes to Australia he falls in love with Sue (she was marriage too) they live together but after they became poor and live a tragedy family: in fact little jude kill himself and the other brother
THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING ERNEST
comedy of manners= play which Wild give us the vision about the problem of the period. For doing this he use e lot of sens of humor very brillant. He use a lot of misunderstanding (doppi sensi) and paradoxes.
The title itself is a paradox: it has a double meaning =the name Earnest and even a meaning link to Onest. But in this play no one is onest, there are a lot of lie.
These characters rapresent negative things of socety. The important is not what they say, but how they said. This kind of satire comes from ironic using very important, solenn language in sitation not (adatte) to say stupid things.
Here, but also in general, this sense of irony is the most important thiind of the play, even imagination.
The characters may change they identity as they want.